Scope For Money Making money isn't as easy as it appears! Wed, 14 Sep 2016 18:27:38 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Getting The Best Sleep Now Tue, 26 May 2015 20:22:55 +0000

As anyone who has worked overtime to complete a project or stayed up through the night tending to a sick child can attest, lack of sleep affects just about everything - from well-being and personal relationships to job performance and alertness. And recent studies suggest that the repercussions of too little sleep aren't only personal: According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, drowsy drivers caused roughly 100,000 crashes on our nation's highways in 1998. Likewise, accidents attributed to sleep-deprived workers cost the federal government and private businesses billions of dollars each year in workmen's compensation.

Getting a good night's sleep isn't something to just dream about, though. You also can't afford to ignore snoring. As our common sense tips show, a little planning and discipline are all that's needed to get eight hours of restorative zzz's.

goodsleepingGood Night, Sleepyhead

Make it a priority to get eight hours of sleep a night. Establish a fairly consistent sleep schedule and stick to it - that way you are tired and ready to sleep come bedtime.

Say no to coffee, tea, colas, and chocolate, all of which contain the stimulant caffeine, for at least four hours prior to turning in.

Avoid alcoholic beverages. A late-night toddy may make you drowsy, but it will ultimately compromise the quality of deep sleep. Dehydration, headaches, and frequent urination are common side effects that can contribute to a night of less-than-restful sleep.

Exercise early in the day. Working out before bedtime will energize your body, making it difficult to fall asleep.

Review current medications with your doctor or pharmacist to determine if insomnia is a side effect.

Take a bath or stretch to soothe tired muscles and relieve stress.

Keep a journal. Writing down your concerns and thoughts before retiring can help to reduce anxiety and put the problems of the day in perspective.

Turn off all lights and draw curtains or shades. If it is impossible to eliminate outside light, consider wearing a sleep mask.

Minimize noise. If your neighborhood is particularly noisy, invest in foam earplugs (available at drug stores) or a fan, the whir of which should drown out more persistent sounds.

Keep your bedroom cool. Between 60 [degrees] and 65 [degrees] F is considered ideal, according to the nonprofit Better Sleep Council.

Make sure your mattress is comfortable and offers adequate support for your body. If you frequently wake up experiencing aches and pains, it's time to consider purchasing a new mattress (see "Mattress Matters," above, for details).

Good luck and good night!

Are You Getting Enough?

"Most of us need eight hours of sound sleep to function at our best, and good health demands good sleep," says Thomas Roth, Ph.D., the director of the Sleep Disorders Research Center at Henry Ford Hospital, in Detroit, in Detroit. "People have no idea how important sleep is to their lives," he adds. According to the National Sleep Foundation, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit, Americans on average sleep about seven hours a night. Nearly a third of us, however, sleep six hours or less during the workweek.

Getting the Rest You Need

At the sleep disorder clinic at Good Samaritan Medical Center, in West Palm Beach, Fla., co-director Dr. Allen Rosen recommends that patients experiencing insomnia make sure they keep to a regular sleep schedule and only hit the sack when truly tired. Patients at the clinic are cautioned to avoid eating, paying bills, listening to the radio, or watching TV in bed so that they will come to associate their beds with sleep. Dr. Rosen also encourages the individuals he treats to try deep-breathing exercises or listening to relaxation tapes (available at most bookstores) to unwind before turning in. Patients at the clinic who find sleep elusive are also told to turn their clocks so that the dial faces the wall. "There's nothing worse than watching the clock ticking and worrying that you're not getting enough sleep," says Dr. Rosen.

Mattress Matters

Although we spend roughly a third of our lives in bed, few of us give our mattresses adequate attention. Jim Ruehlmann, of the mattress manufacturer Sealy, offers the following advice:

* Replace mattresses and box springs every seven to 10 years.

* Buy the best mattress you can afford and make certain that the coil count is at least 300.

* If you're part of a couple, always shop for a new mattress together.

* To prolong the life of your bed and even out wear, use a mattress pad and rotate your mattress every few months (turn it upside down, then top to bottom).

* Keep your mattress clean by vacuuming it regularly

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Snoring Causes Are Harsh Sat, 23 May 2015 21:36:29 +0000

Snoring is such a problem for me that I recently decided to get in touch with Gary Zammit, Ph.D., director of the Sleep Disorders Institute at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital in Manhattan, who offered me an exam. Frankly, I wanted to know how to stop snoring.

Zammit examined my throat, took a medical history and asked me a long list of questions about both my snoring pattern and sleep habits. The questions were wide-ranging - from how much coffee I drank to whether I ever saw or heard things that weren't there as I was falling asleep or waking up (hypnagogic hallucinations). He was looking for two things: clues as to why I snored and warning signs that might indicate a condition called sleep apnea, a serious medical problem of which snoring is only a symptom. There are some interesting anti-snoring devices out there, though.

According to Zammit, my snoring-onset scenario is not unusual. For men, the age-related snoring stats read like this: An estimated 5 to 7 percent of boys snore. By our early 30s, the number doubles. The biggest snoring spike starts as we approach our 50s and moves upward until, by our early 60s, as many as half of us make some obnoxious noises in the night.

But why do these tissues in our throats - which haven't peeped since day one - suddenly start rattling, waking up our domestic partners as we near 40? Three reasons:

* Extra pounds. From the time we're teenagers, we tend to slowly put on weight. Fat cells in the mouth and neck then narrow our airways, and the narrower the passage, the more turbulence is created - as whitewater rafters know.

* Girlie-man muscles. Aging, and the concurrent loss of muscle tone, may start us sliding toward snoring, says Neil B. Kavey, M.D., the director of the Sleep Disorders Center at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York. Past the age of 35," he says, the muscles that line the airways are not quite as good as they once were at holding the airway open." Again, the more narrow the airway, way, the more turbulent the influx of air.

* Bad vibrations. Not only do aging muscles hold the airway open less efficiently, but they also start vibrating, waking up the good woman who was kind enough to cuddle with you.

Beyond these three major factors, there are several other potential causes of nighttime noisiness, such as:

* A packed proboscis. If your nose is stuffed up - by either a cold or allergies - you may gulp air through your mouth, which speeds up airflow. Try elevating the head of your bed for a better breathing position.

* Tonsils or tumors. Yes, grown-ups can get tonsillitis, too. Sometimes that's enough to precipitate snoring. The same is true of swollen adenoidal tissue. Any kind of asymptomatic growth - from a perfectly benign lesion to a potentially serious tumor - can be the source of snoring.

* Anatomical abnormalities. A deviated septum, in combination with the ravages of age, may set you snoring. "Sometimes people with short necks are prone to snoring," says Dr. Kavey, "as are people with overbites and small jaws."

* latrogenic interference. Cool word, huh? Pronounced eye-a-tro-GEN-ic, it means caused by a medical treatment, and is often used in malpractice suits. Some drugs, such as sedatives and certain antihistamines, can cause swelling of the membranes that line the throat. Ask your doctor if a medication could be the cause of your annoying nocturne.

* Cigarettes. If increased risk of heart attack, lung cancer, stroke and emphysema haven't done the motivational trick for you when it comes to quitting, you probably won't care, but how's this? Caution: The surgeon general also thinks smoking can cause snoring. It irritates and narrows the throat lining and increases mucus buildup.

* A belt before bed. Alcohol's a muscle relaxant, and those relaxed muscles may tremble in the turbulence.

* A bone-dry bedroom. If your bedroom is very dry, throat tissues can swell. In some cases, a humidifier may help.

Finding no obvious cause for my snoring, Zammit suggested I spend a night at his snoratorium to undergo polysomnography - a sleep study that would monitor pretty much everything my body did while I was unconscious.

A week later I checked in with Rena and Flex, the sleep technicians, who showed me to my room. The accommodations were surprisingly comfortable. This was no cold, clinical laboratory, but a carpeted, air-conditioned room, complete with a queen-size bed and even that rarest of commodities in medical facilities, up-to-date magazines.

Once I was in my sleepwear, Rena and Flex began peppering my body with sensors. Within 15 minutes, I had 17 different sensors attached from head to calf. There were several electrodes on my skull to measure brain activity. There were also sensors to measure eye movement, chest and stomach movement, leg movement and heart rate. There was a microphone to record snoring sounds, a device attached under my nose to measure airflow in and out, and another placed on my fingertip to take my pulse and record the level of oxygen in my blood. A sensor attached to my chin would detail chin movement and the level of muscle relaxation.

I wondered how I would be able to sleep at all with all this equipment attached to me. But once the technicians gathered all the wires behind my head in a sort of polysomnographic ponytail, it was surprisingly comfortable. I could move easily about the room.

When I felt ready to go to sleep, Flex plugged all the wires from the sensors into a central control panel, disappeared into the next room and then, through an intercom, asked me to do a few things that would establish baseline readings. She came back in and warned me that if some of the sensors came off in the middle of the night, someone might have to come in to reattach them. Then she wished me a sweet good night and returned to her post, from which she would monitor the equipment overnight as it spewed forth data about my every breath and brain wave.

The next morning, Flex's lilting Caribbean voice gave me a wake-up call through the speaker over the bed. She came in, removed the wires and asked me a few follow-up questions. Then I shampooed the electrode paste out of my hair, got dressed and was on my way.

A few days later, Zammit told me that although I had had one apnea (shutting down of my airway) during the night and 75 hypopneas (partial closures), they didn't compromise the amount of oxygen in my blood or the function of my heart.

As to my snoring, he suggested that I try to lose some weight (at 5 feet 11 inches tall, I should be 15 pounds lighter, with an ideal of about 175 pounds), and that I try some "positional treatments," tricks that help you sleep on your stomach, where you're less likely to snore. If those didn't work, he recommended a dental appliance - either a tongue-retaining device like this one or a jaw repositioner - as the next-best bet. He also suggested that I have another overnight sleep study in a year or two, to be sure that serious sleep apnea had not developed.

I'm happy to report that I've lost half the weight already. I have also sewn a golf-ball pouch into the back of a few of my T-shirts. The Titleist technique is no fun, but it's amazing how quickly it makes you stop rolling over. According to Jody, my snoring is both a little less frequent and less loud.

In fact, she recently woke me up at dawn - this time, however, not with a cranky kick but with a needy caress. She had slept right through the night and apparently had energy to burn.

After our tender tango, my girl got up and about the business of the day. I, in the time-honored male tradition of afterglow, rolled over and went back to sleep.

Another Idea: The Snoring Pillow

The fundamental advantage of using anti snoring pillows is to stop someone from snoring. For people who have tried using anti snoring pillows, they have claimed to be satisfied with the product. The habit of snoring is best avoided by using anti snoring pillows. Anti snoring pillows keep the user’s head in a position that avoid the sound of snoring. For those who have been sleeping with a snoring partner, rewarding him or her anti snoring pillows would be best. Most local health stores are selling anti snoring pillows at an affordable price. Today online shops are also advertising the specially designed pillows. The anti snoring pillows are completely described at their respective company site. Browse various stores to provide better options.

Anti snoring pillows have many advantages but you must know the reason behind the case of snoring. It is best to treat any underlying condition that triggers snoring. Visit your physician immediately and discuss snoring solutions. Snoring usually arise as first sign of a cardiovascular disease.

Elevate head using anti snoring pillows because this position promotes easy breathing. Choose smooth anti snoring pillows to provide comfort during sleep. If the special pillows don’t work, there are also other snoring solutions such as pills and mouthpieces available in stores.

As much as everyone have already been enticed to purchase the latest anti snoring pillows, there are few reasons why others don’t really like it. For most adults, the availability of anti snoring pillows is the best solution for their snoring partners. However, some of these pillows do not reduce shoulder and neck pains. Some manufacturers use rough materials that are totally uncomfortable to users. Yes, the pillow gives support to the spine but the fabrics greatly affect the effectiveness of the anti snoring pillows.

If you want to purchase anti snoring pillows, make sure to check its features. You can do a little reading about it online. You can join forums for discussions about the best anti snoring pillows. This avoids future problems when the product is already with you.

People often think that snoring is part of their sleeping habit. That is why many of them just ignore and do nothing about it. People must be aware that snoring can lead to respiratory ailments and major cardiovascular diseases.

Choose anti snoring pillows that are smooth and comfortable to use. Selecting a pillowcase made of silk or cotton is also essential. So when buying, always select the right fabric the goes with the product.

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Solve Sleep Problems Now Sun, 03 May 2015 21:48:05 +0000

So here we show you how to nip each type of sleep-disturbance pattern in the bud with the best self-help techniques. (See " Sleep-Disorders Clinics" in our help section for determining when your sleep problem is serious enough to deserve a sleep-medicine specialist's attention.)


Release the pressure valve. It's one thing to have trouble sleeping. It's quite another to start worrying about having trouble sleeping. Before long, the worry itself can start to interfere with your ability to fall asleep, even when the initial cause of sleeplessness is gone. If it is snoring, some remedies are here. Fortunately, there's much you can do to eliminate this second tier of trouble.

"Trying to sleep is the worst thing you can do," says Peter Hauri, Ph.D, director of the insomnia program at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, "because the more you try to sleep and focus on sleeping, the harder it will be to fall asleep."

One thing that adds to the pressure of falling asleep is seeing the bedroom clock--a reminder of how late it is. "The clock in the bedroom is poison in most cases," says Dr. Hauri. "It puts too much pressure on you to fall asleep. You only struggle with yourself, trying harder and harder to sleep the later it gets." He suggests that you set your alarm and stick it in a dresser drawer. Hide your watch, and throw a towel over the VCR clock, too.

Relaxation techniques (such as meditation, counting your breaths, slowly tensing and relaxing muscles, and others) can help. Find one you're comfortable with and remember not to try too hard to relax, or you'll just make yourself more tense. Dr. Hauri offers this counting method in his book No More Sleepless Nights (John Wiley & Sons, 1990):

With your eyes closed and while lying in bed, let your body go limp. Count slowly from 100 to 0, seeing the numbers being written one below the other, like they're on descending stair steps. Feel your body relax. Keep counting until you fall asleep.

Control in-bed time. When time spent tossing and turning is added to sleep time, the in-bed period may begin to spread too far, and quality of sleep can be affected. "It's like water spreading over a big area. The longer you stay in bed, the shallower your sleep will be," says Dr. Hauri. "Most people stay in bed too long when they haven't slept through the night. So they learn to associate the bedroom with tossing and turning, not sleeping."

So retire to your bedroom only when you're sleepy. Don't make yourself go to bed at a certain time if you aren't tired.

Some sleep experts say that you shouldn't read, eat or watch TV in bed. If you're having trouble falling asleep, they say, get up and go to another room until you're sleepy again, no matter how many times a night this happens. the goal is to associate your bedroom with sleepiness (and pleasure), not frustration.

Watch your tolerance for you-know-what. It would be hard to find someone who didn't know that caffeine can hinder your ability to fall asleep. But here's something you might not realize: Your body's tolerance of caffeine can be dramatically altered as you grow older.

Try reducing the caffeine in your diet for a few weeks. (Decrease it slowly, becayse some heavy caffeine users experience headaches, irritability and other withdrawal symptoms at first.) If you sleep better and are less anxious, caffeine could be the culprit in your insomnia. Dr. Hauri recommends that if you have insomnia you should consumer fewer than two eight-ounce cups of coffee a day, and never have caffeine after lunch.

One more thing to keep in mind: Even if caffeine isn't keeping you from falling asleep, it can cause you to wake up more often during the night, and can make sleep less restful.

Sleep in synch. Many people who can't fall asleep are suffering from delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Their circadian rhythm--a kind of internal clock--is out of synch with the world they live in.

They find themselves going to sleep at 3 a.m. and staying in bed until noon. They may get the normal length of sleep, but it comes at the wrong time. And when they have to get up early, they suffer sleep deprivation.

Fortunately, there is a solution: bright light. How bright is bright? "About four to five times brighter than ordinary indoor lighting," says Al Lewy, M.D., Ph.D., director of the sleep and mood-disorders clinic at the University of Oregon Health Science Center.

Bright light helps to reset the body's circadian rhythm, or internal clock, which has been found to control hormone levels, body temperature hormone levels, body temperature and arousal. "You use the bright light as soon as you wake up for 30 to 120 minutes per day. Then each day, or every other day, you move your wake-up time (and therefore your light-exposure time) to 15 minutes earlier, until you're waking up at the desired time.

"This should automatically move your sleepiness time earlier so you fall asleep earlier," says Dr. Lewy. Though success with this technique has been reported in a matter of days, he says. "It usually takes a few weeks. And you may need to use light exposure every other day or so, 15 to 60 minutes duration, to maintain the correct sleep phase. If you're waking up early already, obviously you don't need to shift your wake-up time progressively earlier. But you do need to get bright light as soon as you wake."

You can purchase a light box, available through some drugstores and medical-supply houses. "They're simply portable lights that use ordinary fluorescent bulbs, covered by a plastic diffuser," says Dr. Lewy. The light should shine on your face from above at a 45-degree angle, while you look forward the light (but not into the light) once or twice a minute. It's best to scan the light from side to side.


Increase body heat. Regular exercise has often been advised as a means of improving sleep. Now researchers have discovered a link between exercise and nightime body temperature. And it's becoming clear that with exercise, how and when really matter.

The body's temperature normally goes up during the day and down at night, sometimes by as much as 2[degrees]F. But insomniacs have less variation: They don't get as warm in the day or as cool at night, and their sleep is shallow and fragmented. But if you heat up your body with a workout about six hours before bedtime, you'll start cooling down just as you want to go to sleep. Be sure not to exercise sooner than three hours before going to bed, or the stimulant effect of the workout might keep you awake.

Aerobic exercise that gets your heart rate up is what you need--walking, running, cycling--and you must be consistent. Three times a week will help your heart, but it might not be enough to promote sleep. Twenty to thirty minutes, five days a week is a good target to shoot for.

Nix the nightcap. Many people like to have a nightcap to put them to sleep--29 percent of those reporting sleep difficulties in a national survey use alcohol to help them sleep. While alcohol may induce sleep. While alcohol may induce sleep, at the same time it lowers the quality of your sleep and leaves you prone to waking up during the night. And drinking to induce sleep can lead to dependency.

Forget the smokes. Nicotine is a stimulant. It raises blood pressure, gets the heart going faster and makes your brain more active. If you're a heavy smoker, nicotine withdrawal during the night may awaken you.

Feel drained. If you often find yourself waking up to urinate at night, try walking around the house or doing some other mild activity for 5 or 10 minutes an hour or so before you turn in. This helps circulate fluids into your kidneys, stimulating you to visit the bathroom before retiring. You should also avoid drinking liquids two hours before retiring.

Go for peace and quiet. If you're easily distracted during the day, you might be easily distracted at night, too. Besides wearing earplugs, you might try turning on a fan to mask distracting noises, or try listening to a tape of a waterfall, waves or rain.

Calibrate the room temp. A room that's too cold or too hot can awaken you. Make sure before you retire the room temperature is comfy.

Tame your tummy. Avoid heavy, spicy foods at night. They might increase your production of stomach acids and give you indigestion and awaken you.


Get the light treatment. Many persons have no trouble falling alseep or sleeping soundly through the night. Their sleep appears normal. But they cannot remain awake beyond the early evening hours and they cannot manage to sleep until sunrise.

They're suffering from advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS), which is essentially the opposite of delayed sleep phase syndrome. Whereas the latter is prevalent in young persons, advanced sleep phase disorder becomes more common with age.

Once again, a light box offers a solution: "One or two hours of bright light, to end about one hour before the desired sleep time, is best," says Dr. Lewy. "Try this for two weeks. Shift the light-exposure time gradually later (15 minutes a day until you reach the desired time), say from 7-9 p.m. to 8-10 p.m. Gradually decrease the daily exposure to 30 to 60 minutes."

Not all persons experience early awakenings have ASPS. "Depression can also cause early-morning awakenings," says Dr. Walsh.

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How Serious Is RLS? Sun, 26 Apr 2015 21:39:46 +0000

Do your legs sometimes wake you up long before your alarm clock? Has your husband ever complained that you kick him in your sleep? Have you ever bolted awake, feeling as though you're tripping off a curb?

For many of us, such nocturnal jostling makes sleep anything but restful. Some of these experiences are nothing to worry about. Others are more troublesome and may require medical attention. Here, some of the most common nighttime occurrences:

A startling awakening is called a hypnic jerk - a harmless total body reflex that wakes people as they're falling asleep. "It involves a temporary disruption in the part of the nervous system that controls our sense of balance," says Gary Richardson, M.D., director of the Sleep Disorders Service at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital. If we feel we're losing balance just before we're completely asleep, we will involuntarily jerk our legs and arms to "catch" ourselves.

Leg cramps are usually the result of poor circulation or inactivity being stuck at a desk all day). They tend to be more frequent among pregnant women and the elderly. Less common causes include hypothyroidism (underactivity of the thyroid gland), kidney problems, or a shortage of minerals such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, says June M. Fry, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Sleep Disorders Center at the Medical College of Pennsylvania.

To treat a cramp, stretch in the opposite direction of the cramp. For example, if your calf is tightening up, the best thing to do is flex your foot and grab your ankles or toes to stretch your calf. Getting up and walking also helps because it warms and stretches the muscles. For severe cases, a doctor can prescribe quinine.

Periodic limb movements are involuntary leg jerks that occur during sleep. "No one knows the cause, but they're a response of the nervous system," says Dr. Fry. Most people are awakened for only a few moments by such movements. If they're stopping you from getting a good night's sleep, however, see your doctor. They could be a side effect of a medication you're taking or a symptom of a disorder such as kidney disease.

Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) is a chronic leg jerk condition that can cause thrashing spells of 90 or more jerks per hour. The condition can happen to anyone, but pregnant women, the middle-aged, and elderly report it more often.

Sufferers complain of feelings of crawling and tingling in the legs. At night, the sensations are usually temporarily relieved only by getting up and walking, causing most victims to be severely sleep-deprived.

The actual cause of RLS is elusive. It can run in families, and many experts speculate that RLS is caused by a central nervous system disorder. It may also be a symptom of anemia or a complication of diabetes, kidney failure, or alcoholism. Some antidepressants can also cause it. The condition is treatable, but no one method works for everyone. To alleviate symptoms, some people take a hot bath or stretch before going to bed. You'll need to experiment to see which remedy works better for you. But see a doctor if RLS interferes with your daily activities.

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Arts And Crafts: Japanese Style Thu, 09 Apr 2015 18:05:12 +0000 Although much has been written about the influence of Japan on Western design movements (the Aesthetic Movement. Arts and Crafts, and Art Nouveau), far less is known of Western influence on Japan. Yet, from about 1900 to the 1910s, Japanese designers, educators, architects, and craftspeople launched a "new style" of art and craft by incorporating elements from French Art Nouveau, the Vienna Secession, and the Glasgow School into traditional Japanese arts. In a later phase, in the 1920s and '30s, Japanese artists instead drew on the ideals and philosophy of John Ruskin and William Morris to create their own response to the modern world. This utopian phase of the Japanese Arts and Crafts Movement will be explored in the next issue of Style 1900. For now, we focus on the initial blending of Western theatre with traditional craft that first enlivened Japanese decorative arts, architecture, and graphic arts just after the turn of the century.

Japan Presents Herself to the West through Craft

ancA century and a half ago, in 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry led an American fleet into Tokyo Bay, prompting Japan to end some two hundred years of self-imposed isolation. The west had first "discovered" Japan in 1543 when a Portuguese ship, blown off course en route to Macao, landed on the islands. Trade developed with Spain, Portugal and Holland until the 1630s, when, fearing the destabilizing spread of Christianity, Japanese rulers closed the country to outside contact save for a limited number of Dutch ships, permitted to sail only into Nagasaki harbor.

The ensuing two centuries of isolation were a time of peace and great artistic achievement for Japan, when crafts such as lacquering and cloisonne attained heights unimaginable in the West.

Thrust again onto the world stage in the 1850s, and without mechanized factories, railroads, and the like, Japan found itself unable to compete commercially with industrialized nations. Drawing upon the nation's creative strengths, the government encouraged artisans to produce hand-crafted export goods of stunning technical quality, which were showcased at world's fairs, such as those in Vienna (1873), Paris (1867, 1878, 1889), Philadelphia (1876), and Chicago (1893). Any search for new forms of expression became secondary to the goal of attaining extraordinary heights of perfection in workmanship. One lacquered cabinet, for example, took ten men seven years to complete.

Time for Change: The Drive for a "New Style"

During the reign of the Emperor Meiji (1868-1912), Japan not only worked to gain status abroad; it also set out to modernize at home. By the turn of the century, elite males had rejected traditional Japanese garb for European-style suits and hats. A Prussian-type constitution was adopted, a British-style Parliament was convened, and education for the entire population became compulsory. A new, Western-style military proved itself with victories over Russia in 1905.

In artistic circles, however, dissatisfaction grew with the Meiji concentration on dazzling heights of craftsmanship. Some artists began to look for a different approach, one based less upon masterful technique and more upon a new aesthetic that would capture the essence of modern Japan.

Asai Chu Brings the "New Style" to the Decorative Arts

This call for a new style gained momentum around 1900, when Asai Chu (1856-1907), a prominent Japanese artist and art educator, brought new ideas home front the great Exposition Universelle in Paris. This world's fair went down in history as an international showcase for European Art Nouveau--in a range of forms, from the sinuous, nature-inspired curves preferred by the French, to the abstract florals and attentuated lines of Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Glasgow School, to the geometric grid patterns of the Vienna Secessionists. All Art Nouveau designers, however, held a common goal: to reject stale reproductions of historic styles and instead find an expression that would embody the modern era in a particular country. On his return from Paris Asai raised similar questions in a Japanese context: where should Japan turn to this new century and what in the arts and crafts was appropriate for the Japanese of his generation?

For Asai the answer lay in coupling the modern European look with a Japanese sensibility--an approach that was sometimes labeled aru-nubo (a transliteration of the term "Art Nouveau") or shin-bejulsu ("New Art"). By the early twentieth century, the mood in Japan had begun to shift from the social and political sternness of the Meiji period (1868-1912) to the cultural exuberance that would exemplify the reign of the emperor Taisho (1912-1925).

Artists and intellectuals were becoming interested in socialism and romantic literature; the ideal of democracy was spreading. The time was ripe for change when Asai became the first instructor of design at the newly founded Kyoto Institute of Technology, one of Japan's first schools to teach design as well as craft. Asai and his colleagues set out to train "men who can give fresh new approaches" to the Japanese craft world. The curriculum included design theory, instruction in machining, weaving, and textile-dying, and the practical, hands-on application of design to pottery, fabrics, architecture, interior furnishings, and woodwork. Craft skills remained important, but the pursuit of vitality in style became important, too; in fact, the concept of zuan ("design") entered the Japanese language for the first time at this period.

The objects that Asai created at the Kyoto Institute were heavily influenced by what he had seen in France. One piece still on display at the Institute is a vase he decorated in a bold patterning of plum tree trunks against a blue background. Like so much of his oeuvre, it recalls French Art Nouveau, but the simplicity, the subject matter, and the strong silhouetting all refer to the work of earlier Japanese masters. Working primarily in pottery decoration and designing for tiles, lacquer ware, and embroidery, Asai and his associates often coupled the modern European aesthetic with the bold golds and reds of Japanese lacquer and a traditionally whimsical treatment of subject matter.

"New Style" Experiments in Architecture

gaeArchitect Takeda Goichi (1872-1938), Asai's colleague at the Institute, also traveled to Europe. In 1902 he studied in England at the Camden School of Art and Science, where he was immersed in the work of contemporary British designers. During his stay, he produced a series of watercolor designs for interiors incorporating elements from the work of Mackintosh, as well as cabinet and wallpaper designs after Arts and Crafts designer C.F.A. Voysey. (1)

Upon his return to Japan, Takeda continued designing in this Mackintosh-and-Art-Nouveau-inspired idiom, producing a number of residences. Sadly, only a few of these remain. Especially noteworthy was the Fukushima Residence (no longer extant), designed in 1905 for a trading merchant. One would have entered this Secession/ Glasgow-style manor through an iron gate shaped like a spider. The exterior wall was colored a rich burgundy, set off by stained glass windows. Inside, curtains with abstract floral patterns were used, some of" the furniture was painted white a la Mackintosh, and even the ceilings and walls were decorated with Secession/ Mackintosh-inspired geometric patterns.

Architects unconnected with the Kyoto Institute also experimented with the New Style, especially in domestic work. Part of their efforts involved merging the living patterns of the East and me West--for instance, advocating the use of chairs instead of kneeling on mats on the floor and providing house plans with Western-type kitchens and living rooms. Stylistically, these architects incorporated elements from European Art Nouveau and Secession buildings, and even drew upon the American bungalow. One company--still in existence today actually called themselves Amerika-ya ("The American House") and offered bungalow kits imported from Seattle, Later the firm built bungalows from their own designs, as well as homes suited to a more traditional Japanese lifestyle.

Graphic Art Embraces the New Style

Another locale for the development of the New Style was Tokyo, then fast becoming a vibrant center of consumer culture as well as of publishing and the graphic arts. Inaugurated in 1900, the Tokyo-based literary magazine Myojo followed in the tracks of Western publications such as The Studio, Art Decoratif, and Jugend by commissioning covers from artists eager to work in a modern idiom. The first issue featured a design by Ichijo Naomi or a Japanese woman with flowing hair holding a lily, executed in the Art Nouveau style of European poster artist Alphonse Mucha.

When Natsume Soseki, one of Japan's greatest novelists. returned home from a visit to England in 1902, he showed examples of Western work to the young artist Hashiguchi Goyo (1881-1921), who went on to design New Style covers for Soseki's books. Other artists, among them Fujishima Takeji 1867-1943) and Sugiura Hisui (1876-1965), produced magazine illustrations, book covers and posters that helped to spread the new Western-influenced aesthetic to the public.

The spirit of the Taisho era was best personified by Takehisa Yumeji (1884-1934). A self-taught designer and illustrator, his series of languid "Yumeji-women" art still popular today. Like other artists, he clipped graphics from Studio and Jugend for inspiration, but he also studied Edo--period woodblock prints, developing a style that successfully melded the Western with the Japanese. Beginning his career in Tokyo in 1901 at age eighteen, Yumeji bridled at his rejection from government-sponsored exhibitions. His fame grew due to the "alternative" shows that he staged near the official ones. Minatoya, a small shop tsar he opened with his wife further boosted his popularity, especially among the fashion conscious young women who avidly purchased his New Style handkerchiefs, notepads, envelopes, woodblock-printed cards kimono accessories, and dolls.

The Decline of the New Style; Tastes Change; Utopian Idealism Grows

In the late 1920s, Yumeji's popularity declined rapidly because of changing tastes and public disapproval of his somewhat decadent lifestyle. In 1930, near the end of his life, he planned to start the Harunasan-Commercial Design Study Center, a school where design and craft could be taught on a farm that would provide the community with fresh produce. It was an idealistic project much like Gustav Stickley's vision for Craftsman Farms, and, as with Stickley's endeavor, it never materialized. Nonetheless, Yumeji's utopian idea was shared by other Japanese of the period, propelling a series of philosophical craft and education movements that were based less on outward style and more upon Ruskinian and Morrisian idealism. This Mingei or "folk-craft" movement, where craft became a vision for a better way of life, will be explored in the next issue of Style 1900.

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Nighttime Asthma Can Be A Killer Wed, 01 Apr 2015 21:43:03 +0000

Even people who have relatively little trouble with asthma during the day can have major difficulties at night. The reason: the body's 24-hour, or circadian, cycle. "In people with normal lungs, lung function falls during sleep--but only by about 8 percent, so it isn't a problem," says Dr. Martin. "But in asthmatics, lung function can fall by as much as 50 percent during sleep--with dire consequences. "

In addition, certain natural hormones that reduce inflammation and promote airway openness--like epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol--reach their lowest levels in the middle of the night. Meanwhile, other hormones that narrow the airways and promote mucous production, like histamine, increase at night.

Other biological and environmental factors contribute to making nighttime a nightmare for asthmatics: allergens, body positions, even undiagnosed sinusitis. How to counteract these factors? Based on interviews with leading asthma researchers, here are the key steps to help you get a good night's sleep.


See the right doctor. If you suspect nocturnal asthma, consult an asthma specialist. A diagnosis is necessary for effective treatment. "We have a saying: `All that wheezes is not asthma,'" says Dr. Martin. "Many types of lung disease, from congestive heart failure to emphysema, can get worse at night. " Whether you have asthma or not, you'll probably need a complete round of allergy tests. People with asthma are particularly allergy-prone, and allergens can cause nighttime wheezing. "Who wants to start taking asthma medications for the rest of his life, if he's really wheezing because of the cat or the pillow or something else that's easy to correct? " says Thomas Platts-Mills, M.D., head of the Asthma and Allergic Diseases Center at the University of Virginia.


Clean your bedroom. If your allergy tests come up clean, you can skip this suggestion and the next one. But if allergies are contributing to nighttime wheezing, you may have to do some cleaning and redecorating.

Dust mites are a common bedroom allergen. These microscopic relatives of spiders live in mattresses, Pillows, even carpeting. Plastic covers for your pillows and mattresses, and regular washing of bedclothes in hot water can keep them to a minimum. If feathers are your problem, you'll have to trade your feather pillow or down comforter for a hypoallergenic one. Removing carpets in favor of washable wood or vinyl floors can help, as can regular vacuuming and dusting. And if pet dander's the problem, banish Fido or Fluffy from the bedroom.

For some asthmatics, the nighttime poltergeist is pollen, says Dr. Platts-Mills. "Patients who are hot and bothered with hay fever and want fresh air often put fans in their windows. That blow, more pollen into the room, and then they may even end up in the hospital." A shut window and an air cleaner is a better approach.

But you'll still have to be meticulous about cleanliness, says Dr. Platts-Mills. "We think a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filter can be useful in the bedroom, but it won't be useful if you have your head on a pillow full of dust mites or if you have a carpet full of cat allergen." (Talk to your physician for advice before buying an air filter.)


Be careful out there. It's important to avoid allergens all day long, not just in the bedroom, says Dr. Spector. "One of the main reasons people have nocturnal symptoms is because of allergic exposure early in the day. Let's say you have contact with a cat. You might have an immediate reaction, but hours later you may get a second reaction, known as a late-phase reaction." Talk with your doctor about triggers that may be causing a delayed response--whether it's fur, smoke or perfume--and ways to avoid them.


Measure your breath. A physician can show you how to use a peak flow meter, a simple, inexpensive device that measures the maximum amount of air a person can blow out. Dr. Martin instructs patients to use it when they go to sleep, first thing in the morning and if they wake up in the middle of the night, "even if they don't feel tight." These objective measurements can help your physician make an accurate diagnosis and develop a treatment program that's right for you.


Reschedule medications. In the old days, says Dr. Martin, asthma medication was taken at regular intervals. Now, specialists use an approach called chronopharmacology: targeting medication so it reaches peak effectiveness when asthma is at its worst, at night.

Based on Dr. Martin's pioneering research with asthmatics in his sleep laboratory, he makes several suggestions about the timing of leading asthma medications. (Of course, don't make any changes in your medication without consulting your physician. These include:

* Sustained-release theophylline A methylxanthine that opens the bronchial passages, this medication is best administered around dinnertime; that's 6 p.m., if the theophylline is a once-daily preparation. "Blood levels of this type of theophylline preparation usually peak around 10 hours after it's taken," explains Dr. Martin.

* Corticosteroids "Classically, oral steroids have been used in the morning," says Dr. Martin. "But we're finding now that if you use these potent anti-inflammatories at 3 p.m., you get a much better improvement in asthma at night." Dr. Martin's laboratory hasn't completed studies yet on timing of inhaled steroids, "but right now it appears to be a similar story; that they're most effective taken at 3 p.m."

* Long-acting beta-agonists, such as salmeterol (Serevent) These drugs open the airways and have been found to be very helpful for people with nocturnal asthma. Since the effects last about 12 hours, says Dr. Martin, when you take them isn't so critical. One important note: Salmeterol is not an emergency rescue drug. If you're having difficulty breathing, "Use your short-acting beta-agonist inhaler [Proventil, Ventolin, Maxair, for example] instead," says Dr. Martin. He emphasizes the point: "Some people who've tried to use salmeterol for breathing emergencies have died; it just doesn't act that quickly."


Treat sinusitis. An estimated 70 percent of asthmatics suffer from chronic sinusitis and postnasal drip. If cleared, both day and night asthma symptoms often improve, sometimes dramatically. Sinusitis symptoms include headaches above or below the eyes, often related to changes in the weather; stuffy nose; excess mucus, often yellowish; some blood in the mucus. Sometimes sinusitis has no symptoms; a physician must detect it.

The key to treating sinusitis is to decrease congestion so nasal passages can drain. Your doctor may recommend an over-the-counter or prescription decongestant. Regular irrigation of the sinuses with a saline solution, one to five times a day, also helps. A minority of people develop sinus infections, and antibiotics may be needed. Surgery is a last resort for chronic sinusitis.


Treat sleep apnea. In sleep apnea, breathing stops briefly but many times during sleep. Treating it can improve some people's asthma. An apnea diagnosis must be made by a physician and may require an overnight stay in a sleep laboratory. Treatment includes weight loss; avoiding alcohol; not sleeping on your back; medication; and in severe cases, a mask that you wear at night called a nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) to keep your airways free and clear from obstruction.


Stop the acid. It's possible that for some asthmatics, that bitter taste of acid reflux in the mouth means wheezing in the lungs. In gastroesophageal reflux, acid from the stomach backs up into the esophagus or mouth. It's worst at night because of the horizontal position. In rare cases, says Dr. Platts-Mills, people may actually breathe that acid into their lungs, contributing to inflammation.

Dr. Platts-Mills treats asthmatics with antacids, and suggests some self-help measures to reduce reflux. These include elevating the head end of the bed about four inches using books or bricks; sleeping on a high pillow; avoiding irritating foods; avoiding alcohol; avoiding late-night eating; and losing excess weight that puts too much pressure on the stomach.

If you're wheezing at night, take the time to talk to your doctor about designing a program to help you. Remember, nocturnal asthma is treatable. The benefits of top-notch asthma control and a good night's sleep will last you all day long.

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Cutting the Snoring Out Of Your Life Mon, 30 Mar 2015 22:13:52 +0000 If you are one of those people who tried to stop snoring by using natural remedies without any success, there are a few medical devices that could help you overcome this condition.

If you stopped drinking alcohol and dairy products before bed time without success, tried sleeping on your side and taking decongestive tablets, and still you are losing the snoring battle, this would be the answer for you. CPAP is a facemask that pushes air through your airways to keep them open during the time of sleep. This machine is the size of a shoebox with a flexible tube and mask. With CPAP, it does not matter where the obstruction would be occurring. Apart from this, CPAP is very safe and has a high success rate.

The other choice that you can have a look at would be surgery. When choosing this option it would be advisable to think very carefully, this should be your last resort. With the option of surgery there are a couple of things that can be done to cure your snoring troubles…removing excess throat tissue, shrinking and removing throat tissue through low levels of radio frequency, injecting Sclerosing to tighten up the soft pallet etc.

These medical remedies have been designed to help or prevent suffering from snoring and they are effective but expensive as well.

Everyone snores for different reasons. Let us take a look at some causes and the remedies for them, because believe it or not, no matter what your cause is, there is a cure. Firstly let us take a look at your sleeping posture, when you sleep flat on your back... it causes the flesh of your throat to relax and in turn blocks the airway.

There are 3 ways to rectify this...sleep on your side, elevate your head or even sewing a tennis ball onto the back of your pyjama top will stop you from sleeping on your back.

Next, we have nasal and sinus problems. If your airways are blocked it makes inhalation difficult and a vacuum is created in the throat, which leads to snoring. Now there are 2 ways to fix this...either use a humidifier in your bedroom or try using nasal decongestants or nasal strips to help clear your nasal passages.

There are however, certain instances where it is better to call your doctor about your snoring problems. For instance, if you wake up choking and gasping or stop breathing in your sleep, or if you fall asleep at inappropriate times such as at the dinner table, in your tomato soup, it could be the signs of a more severe underlying problem and professional treatment should be sought.

You don’t need to research for hours or to spend a fraction of your savings if you want to finally end your problems related to snoring. There are simple solutions that you can consider that can help you properly manage the problem as soon as you hit your bed. Perhaps the best approach to snoring is to change your lifestyle. A few tweaks of your lifestyle can serve as the best remedies for snoring, if you are serious in your efforts to finally end snoring.

So what are some of the best lifestyle changes that can serve as some of the best remedies for snoring and give you a better life? You can start by saying no to alcohol. If you can’t instantly dismiss the bottles, you can at least say good bye to alcohol in the evening just before you sleep. If you are a smoker then you also need to say good bye to those regular sticks. Smoking will be a big burden on your lungs thus putting you at risk to smoking. Finally, you can count on regular exercise as one of the best remedies for snoring. With regular exercise, you can boost muscles in the neck thus preventing the narrowing of your mouth and muscles.

Snoring can be funny at times but remember that this can be linked to something serious. Not only is it a nuisance but also 75% of people who snore can be suffering obstructive sleep apnea. It is a condition that is manifested by disrupted breathing for short periods during sleep. This condition increases the risk of developing heart disease. Simply put, there’s a health issue that needs to be addressed when you snore. With this in mind, it pays to learn the remedies for snoring.

If you gained weight and starts snoring, then the remedy for you is to lose weight. Your remedies for snoring should start by identifying its cause. If you gained weight around the neck, it results to squeezing of the internal structures of your throat thus resulting to snoring. Natural and non-invasive remedies include change in position during sleep, avoiding alcohol and most importantly losing weight.

Change of position during sleep helps by not allowing the base of your tongue and soft palate to collapse on the back of throat and cause snoring. Avoiding alcohol helps in combating snoring by not reducing the resting tone of the muscles in the back of the throat that usually happens when intoxicated with alcohol. Weight loss on the other hand reduces the pressure around the neck caused by extra fats and tissues. These are the non-invasive remedies for snoring.

No Sleep, No Brain

Dr. Stanley Coren has written a book on sleep deprivation, Sleep Thieves, and says his research shows that "for each hour under eight hours of sleep, you lose one point in IQ. And for every hour below seven you can lose two points of IQ." Anecdotal evidence supports this. Jennifer Coppens, a 19-year-old Calgary high school student who works 25 hours a week, testifies that "most days I wake up tired." She claims she routinely nods off in math class, and recently flunked an exam.

Dr. Coren, 54, is becoming an master of neuropsychological esoterica. In 1992 he published The Left-Handed Syndrome, which posits that southpaws die seven years younger than right-handers. "Our mechanical world is built for right-handers," he explains. "Left-handed people die earlier due to accidents." He is now working on a book about the psychology of dog owners. "It's an entertaining way to shed light on the human personality," he says.

Sleep is a more serious topic. "People generally rise early and retire early, but a biochemical change occurs at puberty and can last all the way through the person's university years," says Dr. Coren, a father of two fully-grown offspring. "During that time, youths stay up late and have difficulty coping with morning activity. That's why it takes two sticks of dynamite to get them out of bed."

Lack of sleep affects some teenagers' brainpower more than others. Those with IQs around 115 or more can survive several hours of deprivation a night. But a teenager with an IQ of 100 who tallies a similar nightly sleep deficit can lose up to 15 IQ points a week--and risk failing exams. Dr. Coren says the IQ deficit can be eliminated by sleeping soundly on weekends. Unfortunately, "Sleep is the last thing kids think about on Fridays and Saturdays," he observes.

The deprivation can become so severe that "microsleep," in which the brain enters a somnambulant state for 10 seconds to a minute, results. "That's why we hear reports of students falling asleep in class. The phenomena is dangerous if you're driving a car." Some U.S. states have proposed shifting high school and university classes several hours to compensate. "But this was roundly pooh-poohed," recalls Dr. Coren. "Critics complained it would lead to cots being installed in school hallways."

Student Coppens' plight notwithstanding die-hard party animals don't see what the fuss is about. "I party all the time and never flunk exams," boasts Brian Smith, 17, of Vancouver. "Me and my buddies even party on week-nights, and we're no worse for wear."

Bernie Peets, general manager of UBC's Alma Mater Society, does not think there is much to worry about. The 49-year-old father of two remarks that "today's youth take their studies far more seriously than my generation did. And if sleep really does affect IQ, it will only take a couple of flunked exams to shock kids into falling in line."

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Aveda Goes For Broke In Tokyo Tue, 24 Mar 2015 18:08:56 +0000 After more than two years of planning, Aveda is set to unveil a key piece in its global expansion strategy: launching in Japan.

The company's first mark in the country will be with a three-level facility in Tokyo's trendy Minami Aoyama area this fall, noted Dominique Conseil, president of Aveda, who visited here in May to announce the official launch of the brand to the Japanese market. The space will include a shop and cafe on the first floor and a salon and spa on the second floor and basement, respectively.

agfbitGlobal expansion for the brand has been a goal of Aveda's parent, the Estee Lauder Cos., since it purchased the lifestyle brand in December 1997. And with this launch, Aveda has a president who's at home in the market: before assuming the presidency of Aveda in July 2000, Conseil had previously been president and representative director for Cosmelor Ltd., Japan, the L'Oreal Parfums and Beaute division that oversees the Lancome, Helena Rubinstein and Biotherm skin care and cosmetics brands and the Ralph Lauren, Giorgio Armani and Lanvin fragrances in Japan.

Still, Conseil isn't complacent. "Japan is always a Western company's biggest-ever challenge, and Aveda is no exception," said Conseil. Also, he added, "the economy is disappointing currently, not only in Japan, but also around the world. The reason we decided to proceed with our launch is that we have a long-term focus. We know it will take 10 years to capture the full opportunity Japan offers us. Obviously, economic cycles are irrelevant over a period of 10 years."

"Aveda's success depends above all on our ability to connect to these customers, the `cultural creative,' that make our brand what it is," said Conseil. "The general state of the economy, positive or negative, is irrelevant to whether or not we manage to connect with this consumer group. One might even think that Aveda will make an even greater difference to these consumers when times are tough."

To underline the brand's commitment to the market, Conseil noted that the brand is planning to open other retail locations in Tokyo, although he said locations and time frames for their openings are still in the planning stages. However, "we don't plan to operate by ourselves any other lifestyle salon and spa besides [our location in] Minami Aoyama. This is because we are not in the business of owning salons; this is the business of our customers whom we don't want to compete with," said Conseil.

After the brand has established itself in Tokyo, Osaka is next on Conseil's wish list, followed by a rollout nationwide. "We intend to roll out a similar plan in Osaka and surrounding areas with one flagship to inspire potential salon and spa owners, and a few retail locations," he said, noting that piece of the puzzle will come only after Tokyo is firmly established.

Conseil declined to comment on projected sales for the brand's first year in Japan, although industry sources estimated the brand could do upward of $500 million in Japan by the end of its first five years there.

Conseil is hopeful of the brand's success in the market, pointing out the synergies between the brand and the culture. "The nature-loving spiritual environmentalism that Aveda promotes has made sense to Japanese people for thousands of years," he said. In fact, Conseil thinks that Japan's hotly competitive market will become a major source of inspiration for Aveda's marketing and research and development teams. Indeed, the market has already spawned one hair care line: Light Elements, a four-item styling line formula, which began rolling out in the U.S. in February. And Conseil expects more lines to come: "By submitting our existing products to the `torture test' of more demanding consumers and by addressing specific needs by new products, we became able to not only address the needs of the Japanese consumers, but also become a lot sharper around the world, including our home market," said Conseil. "In other words, instead of globalizing from the home market, we started to globalize from any market where the consumers are the most demanding vis-a-vis one particular product category."

And Conseil sees the entry into the market as a partnership. "Aveda's introduction in Japan is very timely," he said. "Consumers have suffered from too many corporate responsibility flaws like misleading product labeling. Once Japanese consumers understand that Aveda's culture is truly founded on transparency and disclosure, there is little doubt they will partner with us."

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What Is Offer In Compromise Help? Mon, 02 Mar 2015 10:13:33 +0000 wiaoicTaxes should be paid in full amount and on the designated due date in order not to receive any notice from the Internal Revenue Service and avoid any lawsuit for this matter. However, when these taxes are not paid due to some unforeseeable circumstance, IRS offers several options including the offer in compromise help. Basically, the offer in compromise help is not granted to anyone who has IRS problems. There is a certain requirement needed before this privilege will be given and to be eligible, one must be able to submit these important documents and have his/her current economic status assessed.

The Internal Revenue Service will determine if the person is eligible or not and they will ask the individual to pay a certain amount of his tax debt. The offer in compromise is actually a great option for those with tax disputes. However, one should talk to a tax professional in order to further know this kind of option. The Internal Revenue Service offers flexible payment options for taxpayers but they will charge certain fees for those who cannot abide on the rules set by the government. So, offer in compromise help should be taken seriously as an option.

Choosing The Best Tax Relief Services

Choosing the best tax relief services is not difficult as long as you know what you are doing. There are a lot of individuals who failed to secure the right tax professional because they tend not to research carefully the credential of the individual who will be handling their tax dispute. Since they rush things, most of them have paid a big amount of money that turned to waste eventually. For this reason, it is necessary to carefully select the best tax relief services from reliable professionals. It is important to trust only the expert when it comes to IRS problems because this kind of concern can create a negative impact on your reputation. Hence, everyone is advised to make comparisons among these tax professionals and determine their credibility first and foremost.

It can also be helpful to determine the opinions of friends, acquaintances or family members who are familiar with the entire IRS process. If they cannot contribute a good feedback, you can always find reliable sources in the internet. Tax relief services are definitely worthwhile if you have it done from a professional who has years of experience in the field. This will ensure that your tax concern is immediately fixed.

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Tokyo Auto Salon 2009 Models Wed, 18 Feb 2015 17:41:46 +0000


Mazda's commercialization of the Miller-cycle engine, an invention dating back to the 1940s, got more Japanese media attention than any single advance in fuel conservation. The engine generates 1.5 times the torque of a traditional engine of the same displacement, while improving fuel efficiency 10 to 15%. In the Miller cycle, the compression stroke is shortened to attain a small compression ratio with a large expansion ratio. The engine achieves both low compression ratios and high expansion ratios by delaying the close-timing of the intake valves. To compensate for the decreased amount of intake air, caused by the delay of the closing intake valves, a Lysholm compressor pushes a large volume of compressed air into the cylinder with a screw-type rotor mechanism. Mazda's KJ-ZEM Miller-cycle engine is a 24-valve V6 DOHC model with a bore of 80.3 mm, stroke of 74.2 mm, displacement of 2,254 cc, actual compression ratio of 8.0, maximum torque of 30.0 kg-m/3,500 rpm, power output of 220 ps/5,500 rpm, and high expansion ratio of 10. The Lysholm compressor sits in the V-bank between the cylinder blocks and is driven by a V-belt. Rotors take air in and compress it by a factor of two. A 1.5 X increase in air volume goes to the combustion chamber even if a portion returns to the inlet manifold because of the delayed closing of the inlet valves.

Hydrogen powered

Mazda employed a hydrogen rotary engine on its HR-X2 concept vehicle that contains several improvements compared to commercially available versions. Most interesting is the improved torque in the low-to-mid rpm range. Mazda changed the point of hydrogen injection from the side of the rotor housing to the top of the housing. This shortens the distance between the hydrogen-intake valve and the rotor housing. During intake, hydrogen enters the chamber from a different port than air.

The HR-X2 is an updated version of the hydrogen powered HR-X introduced at the last Tokyo show two years ago. Besides the improved rotary engine, the HR-X2 boasts of a cell-type metal-hydride fuel tank. To store large quantities of hydrogen, it takes advantage of the fact that hydrogen passes easily between the relatively widely spaced atoms of metals. Metal hydride absorbs hydrogen when cooled, and releases it when heated. To release hydrogen, warm water is drawn into the tank to provide a heat source. Even if the tank is unintentionally broken, the release of hydrogen naturally cools the metal hydride to prevent any further loss.

The vehicle is also billed as 100% recyclable. Mazda designed the car based on the possible use of liquid-crystal polymer fiber reinforced plastic, which is said to retain strength after recycling, thus allowing it to be used repeatedly. (The version on display, however, was not actually built with this advanced plastic.) Vehicle structure promotes easy detachment of the upper body from the metal under the chassis. Door panel openings have been enlarged to make it easier to remove functional parts such as the regulator and motor. Seat cushions are the press-and-fit type for easy detachment. For the sake of easy disassembly, headlights mount directly under the windshield, and meters and switches in the instrument panel are integrated with the headlights and turn signals.

Juiced up

The EVX is an electric vehicle designed by Honda. It uses a recyclable lead acid battery and solar panels covering the roof. Electricity to be used by headlights, audio, and ventilation systems comes from an auxiliary battery. To reduce electricity use, headlights have discharge tubes and rear lamps are LEDs. Mileage between charges is said to be 150 km, at maximum speeds of 130 km/h. Nissan AP-X

The four-door AP-X is a concept car designed to show Nissan's philosophy for future sedans. It uses infra-red scanners to detect pedestrians or animals on the road at night, flashing an instrument-panel warning if anything shows up. Radar cuts through rain or fog to measure distances to preceding or following vehicles. The car bleeps a warning if the gap narrows too much.

Safety sells

Honda's Future Safety Research vehicle automatically reduces speed for sharp corners and uses bumper-mounted cameras to transmit images to a dashboard display. The tiny front cameras are positioned so the driver can see around corners in urban traffic. Honda did not explain why cameras are better than nose-mounted mirrors, however. Critics call this a perfect example of how car makers are preoccupied with exhibiting technological prowess but unsure how to benefit drivers or themselves with it.

Other features on the vehicle include a rear message board to transmit driver intentions to other cars, a strobe light in the door pillar to make an open door more visible to vehicles approaching from the rear, and a specially designed hood to reduce front impact loads.

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